Introduction: Acephate is an organophosphate foliar insecticide of moderate persistence with residual systemic activity of about 10¨C15 days at the recommended use rate. It is used primarily for control of aphids, including resistant species, in vegetables (e.g. potatoes, carrots, greenhouse tomatoes, and lettuce) and in horticulture (e.g. on roses and greenhouse ornamentals). It also controls leaf miners, caterpillars, sawflies and thrips in the previously stated crops as well as turf, and forestry. By direct application to mounds, it is effective in destroying imported fire ants.
Common name: Acephate
Another name: Orthene, Asataf, Pillarthene, Kitron, Aimthane, Ortran, Ortho 12420, Ortril, Chrevron RE 12420, and Orthene 755
Chemical Name: O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate ¡¡
Empirical formula: C4H10NO3PS ¡¡
Mol. Weight: 183.2
CAS No.: 30560-19-1
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Acephate FAO standard
Product analysis by glc with FID (CIPAC Handbook, 1998, H, 5; AOAC Methods, 17th Ed., 996.03; J. B. Leary, Anal. Methods Pestic. Plant Growth Regul., 1973, 7, 363). Residues determined by glc (idem, ibid.; Pestic. Anal. Man., 1979, I, 201-H, 201-I; AOAC Methods, 1995, 985.22).
Reviews FAO/WHO 59, 61 (see part 2 of the Bibliography). Oral Acute oral LD50 for male rats 1447, female rats 1030 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits >10 000 mg/kg. Slightly irritating to skin (rabbits); non-sensitising to skin (guinea pigs). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >15 mg/l air. NOEL (2 y) for dogs 0.75 mg/kg b.w. daily; LOEL for rats 0.25 mg/kg b.w. daily. ADI (JMPR) 0.03 mg/kg . Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) III; EPA (formulation) III EC classification Xn; R22
Birds Acute oral LD50 for mallard ducks 350, chickens 852, ring-necked pheasants 140 mg/kg. Fish LC50 (96 h) for bluegill sunfish 2050, rainbow trout >1000, channel catfish 2230, largemouth black bass 1725 mg/l. Daphnia EC50 (48 h) 67.2 mg/l; NOEC 43 mg/l. Algae EC50 (72 h) >980 mg/l. Other aquatic spp. LC50 (96 h) for crayfish 750 ppm. Bees LD50 (contact) 1.2 mg/bee. Worms LC50 (14 d) 22 974 mg/kg; NOEC 10000 mg/kg.
EHC 63 (WHO, 1986; a general review of organophosphorus insecticides). Animals Metabolised to methamidophos (q.v.). Plants In plants, residual activity lasts for c. 10-15 d. The major metabolite is methamidophos (q.v.). Soil/Environment Readily biodegraded and non-persistent; soil DT50 2 d (aerobic) to 7 d (anaerobic). Aqueous DT50 (anaerobic metabolism) 6.6 d. Methamidophos (q.v.) has been identified as a soil metabolite.
Usage: Control of all stages of major Lepidoptera and Coleoptera pests and some Hemiptera and Diptera on cotton, soya beans, maize, vines, fruit, vegetables, and many other crops; seed treatment. Also used as a molluscicide for control of slugs in cereals and oilseed rape.
Application: Biochemistry Cholinesterase inhibitor. Mode of action Systemic insecticide. Uses Control of a wide range of chewing and sucking insects, e.g. aphids, thrips, lepidopterous larvae, sawflies, leaf miners, leafhoppers, cutworms, etc., at 0.5-1.0 kg/ha, in fruit (including citrus), vines, hops, olives, cotton, soya beans, peanuts, macadamia nuts, beet, brassicas, celery, beans, potatoes, rice, tobacco, ornamentals, forestry, and other crops. Of moderate persistence, with residual activity lasting c. 10-21 d. Phytotoxicity Non-phytotoxic to most crops, but marginal leaf burn may occur on Red Delicious apples.