Introduction: Acephate is an organophosphate foliar spray insecticide of moderate persistence with residual systemic activity of about 10-15 days at the recommended use rate. It is used for control of a wide range of biting and sucking insects, especially aphids, including resistant species, in fruit, vegetables (e.g. potatoes and sugar beets), vine, and hop cultivation and in horticulture (e.g. on roses and chrysanthemums grown outdoors). It also controls leaf miners, lepidopterous larvae, sawflies and thrips in the previously stated crops as well as turf, mint and forestry. It is considered non-phytotoxic on many crop plants. Although, a marginal leaf-burn has occurred on Red Delicious apples. Acephate and its primary metabolite, methamidophos, are toxic to Heliothis spp. that are considered resistant to other organophosphate insecticides. Acephate emits toxic fumes of phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides when heated to decomposition. Symptoms of exposure to acephate include a slight irritation of eyes and skin. Acephate comes in soluble powder, pressurized spray and granular formulations.
Common name: Diazinon
Another name: Orthene,Asataf, Pillarthene, Kitron, Aimthane, Ortran, Ortho 12420,Ortril, Chrevron RE 12420, and Orthene 755
Chemical Name: O,O-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl phosphorothioate
Empirical formula: C12H21N2O3PS
Mol. Weight: 304.3
CAS No.: 333-41-5
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More important danger for the man: inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and problem accumulation.
Dangers for the enviroment: maybe bioconcentrate in fish.Physical-chemical dangers: may omit oxides of phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen if involved in fires.
Product analysis by glc with FID (CIPAC Handbook, 1998, H, 122; Anal. Methods Pestic. Plant Growth Regul., 1972, 6, 345; AOAC Methods, 17th Ed., 971.08, 982.06). Residues determined by glc with TID, FPD or MCD, by tlc, by paper chromatography, or by single sweep oscillographic polarography (ibid., 968.24*, 970.33, 970.52, 970.53*; Analyst (London), 1980, 105, 515; Man. Pestic. Residue Anal., 1987, I, 5, 6, S8, S10, S13, S17, S19; Anal. Methods Residues Pestic., 1988, Part I, M2, M5, M12). In drinking water, by glc with NPD (AOAC Methods, 17th Ed., 991.07).
Reviews FAO/WHO 68, 70, 92, 94 (see part 2 of the Bibliography). Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats 1250, mice 80-135, guinea pigs 250-355 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >2150, rabbits 540-650 mg/kg. Not an irritant (rabbits). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >2330 mg/m3. NOEL (2 y) for rats 0.06 mg/kg b.w.; (1 y) for dogs 0.015 mg/kg b.w. daily, humans 0.02 mg/kg b.w. ADI (JMPR) 0.002 mg/kg b.w. [1993, 2001]. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) II; EPA (formulation) II or III EC classification Xn; R22| N; R50, R53
Birds Acute oral LD50 for mallard ducklings 2.7, young pheasants 4.3 mg/kg. Fish LC50 (96 h) for bluegill sunfish 16, rainbow trout 2.6-3.2, carp 7.6-23.4 mg/l. Daphnia LC50 (48 h) 0.96 mg/l. Algae >1 ppm. Bees Highly toxic to bees. Worms Slightly toxic to earthworms.
EHC 198 (WHO 1998), 63 (WHO, 1986; a general review of organophosphorus insecticides). Animals The principal metabolites are diethyl thiophosphate and diethyl phosphate. Plants Studies with 14C-labelled diazinon show a rapid absorption and translocation in plants. Metabolism proceeds via hydrolysis and subsequent transformation and degradation of the hydroxypyrimidine derivatives to CO2. Soil/Environment Degradation involves oxidation to the phosphate (diazoxon) and hydrolysis (J. Pardue et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 1970, 18, 405-408). DT50 c. 11-21 d (laboratory). Diazinon is fairly strongly adsorbed onto soil; Kom 332 mg/g o.m. Mobility is low.
Usage: Diazinon is a non-systemic insecticide used in agriculture to control soil and foliage insects and pests on a variety of fruit, vegetable, nut and field crops.
Diazinon is also used on non-lactating cattle in an insecticidal ear tag, and used outdoors on lawns and gardens, indoors for fly control and in pet collars designed to control fleas and ticks.
Application: Biochemistry Cholinesterase inhibitor. Mode of action Non-systemic insecticide and acaricide with contact, stomach, and respiratory action. Uses Control of sucking and chewing insects and mites on a very wide range of crops, including deciduous fruit trees, citrus fruit, vines, olives, bananas, pineapples, vegetables, potatoes, beet, sugar cane, coffee, cocoa, tea, tobacco, maize, sorghum, alfalfa, flax, cotton, rice, ornamentals, glasshouse crops, forestry, etc., at 300-600 g/ha; soil insects (by soil application); phorid and sciarid flies in mushroom cultivation; flies, lice, mites, fleas, cockroaches, bedbugs, ants, and other insect pests in animal houses and household use. Seed treatment for maize, for control of frit flies and also conferring bird-repellent properties. Also used as a veterinary ectoparasiticide. Phytotoxicity Non-phytotoxic when used as directed. Russetting may occur on green and yellow apple varieties.