Introduction: Azoxystrobin is a broad spectrum fungicide with activity against several diseases on many edible crops and ornamental plants. Some diseases controlled or prevented are rice blast, rusts, downy mildew, powdery mildew, late blight, apple scab, and Septoria.
Common name: Azoxystrobin
Another name: Abound, Amistar, Bankit, Heritage, and Quadris.
Chemical Name: methyl(αE)2-2-[[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)-4-pyrimidinyl]oxy]-α-(methoxymethylene)benzeneacetate
CAS No.: 131860-33-8
Mol. Weight: 403.4
Empirical formula: C22H17N3O5
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Azoxystrobin 95% TC,
Azoxystrobin 50% WDG,
Azoxystrobin 25% SC,
Azoxystrobin 22%+Difenoconazole 12.5%SC
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Inhalation: Toxic if inhaled. Material may be irrit ating to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract.
Skin: May cause skin irritation. May be harmful if absorbed through the skin. Eyes: May cause eye irritation.
Ingestion: May be harmful if swallowed.
Hazards: Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions.
Residues in water by hplc with fluorescence detection (T. J. Meyers & P. D. Francis, Proc. 9th IUPAC Int. Congr. Pestic. Chem., London (1998), 2, 7C-010).
Oral Acute oral LD50 for male and female rats and mice >5000 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >2000 mg/kg. Slight eye and skin irritation (rabbits). Not a skin sensitiser (guinea pigs). Inhalation LC50 (4 h, nose only) for male rats 0.96, female rats 0.69 mg/l. NOEL (2 y) for rats 18 mg/kg b.w. daily.
ADI 0.1 mg/kg b.w. (EU); 0.18 mg/kg b.w. (USA) Other Not genotoxic, carcinogenic or neurotoxic; azoxystrobin has no effect on fertility parameters nor on foetal or infant development. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) U EC classification T; R23| N; R50, R53
Birds Acute oral LD50 for mallard ducks and bobwhite quail >2000 mg/kg. Dietary LC50 (5 d) for bobwhite quail and mallard ducks >5200 mg/kg diet. Fish LC50 (96 h) for rainbow trout 0.47, bluegill sunfish 1.1, carp 1.6, sheepshead minnow 0.66 mg/l. For degradate R234886, LC50 >150 mg/l. Daphnia EC50 (48 h) 80 mg/l. EC50 for degradates: R234886 >180, R401553 >50, R402173 >50 mg/l. Algae EC50 (120 h) for Selenastrum capricornutum 0.12 mg/l. Other aquatic spp. LC50 (96 h) for mysid shrimp 55mg/l; EC50 (48 h) for pacific oyster 1300 mg/l; EC50 (14 d) for Lemna gibba 3.2 mg/l. Bees LD50 for honeybees (oral) >25 mg/bee; (contact) >200 mg/bee. Worms LC50 (14d) for earthworms 283 mg/kg. Other beneficial spp. Harmless to non-target organisms, including predatory mites and bugs, spiders, lacewings, hoverfly, ladybird, carabid beetle, parasitoid wasps and bees, under field conditions at field application rates (IOBC); e.g. LR50 (7 d) for Typhlodromus pyri >1500 g/ha; LR50 (48 h) for Aphidius rhopalosiphi >1135 g/ha.
Animals In rats, the majority of radiolabel is excreted in the faeces, with little remaining radioactivity in any tissues of the animal. A large number of metabolites was formed, of which only the glucuronide of azoxystrobin acid is present at >10% of the administered dose. In goats and hens, azoxystrobin is also excreted rapidly,with low residues in milk, meat or eggs. For details, see R. S. I. Joseph in "Pesticide Chemistry and Bioscience". Plants In wheat, grapes and peanuts, metabolism was extensive, but parent azoxystrobin was the only major (>10%) residue. Metabolism followed similar pathways in all three crops. Soil/Environment Average DT50 (lab.) 8 w (20 °C, pF 2). In soil, in the dark, six identified metabolites were formed; over 1 y, 45% of applied radiolabel is evolved as CO2. Dissipation in the field is faster, average DT50 2 w, DT90 41 w. On soil, photolysis DT50 11 d. Azoxystrobin and its degradates have low to moderate mobility in soil; typical Koc for azoxystrobin c. 500. Field dissipation studies showed that neither azoxystrobin nor its major degradates were typically found in soil below the top 15 cm.
Usage: Controls the following pathogens: Erysiphe graminis, Puccinia spp., Leptosphaeria nodorum, Septoria tritici and Pyrenophora teres on temperate cereals;
Pyricularia oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani on rice; Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator on vines; Sphaerotheca fuliginea and Pseudoperonospora cubensis on cucurbitaceae; Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani on potato and tomato; Mycosphaerella arachidis, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii on peanut; Monilinia spp. and Cladosporium carpophilum on peach; Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on turf; Mycosphaerella spp. on banana; Cladosporium caryigenum on pecan; Colletotrichum spp. and Guignardia citricarpa on citrus; Colletotrichum spp. and Hemileia vastatrix on coffee. Phytotoxicity Good crop safety, except on some varieties of apple (e.g. McIntosh, Cox).
Application: Biochemistry Inhibits mitochondrial respiration by blocking electron transfer between cytochrome b and cytochrome c1, at the ubiquinol oxidising site.Controls pathogenic strains resistant to the 14-demethylase inhibitors, phenylamides, dicarboxamides or benzimidazoles. Mode of action Fungicide with protectant, curative, eradicant, translaminar and systemic properties. Inhibits spore germination and mycelial growth, and also shows antisporulant activity. Uses Controls the following pathogens at application rates between 100 to 375 g/ha: Erysiphe graminis, Puccinia spp., Leptosphaeria nodorum, Septoria tritici and Pyrenophora teres on temperate cereals; Pyricularia oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani on rice; Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator on vines; Sphaerotheca fuliginea and Pseudoperonospora cubensis on cucurbitaceae; Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani on potato and tomato; Mycosphaerella arachidis, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii on peanut; Monilinia spp. and Cladosporium carpophilum on peach; Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on turf; Mycosphaerella spp. on banana; Cladosporium caryigenum on pecan;
Azoxystrobin was developed by Syngenta as the product Amistar, and its derivates Amistar Top, Amistar Opti and Amistar Pro, as well as 5504, Aspect, Curator, Headway, Heritage, Heritage Maxx, Olympus, Ortiva, Priori Xtra, . It is now sold as the following brands by other companies: 5504; Alpha azoxystrobin, Amicron, Astrobin 250, Azzox, Barclay ZX, Cecure, Clayton Belfry, Clayton Stobik, cleancrop celeb, CS Azoxy, Globaztar SC, Harness, Headway, Hi Stobin 25, Jumbo 250 SC, Kingdom Turf, Life Scientific Azoxystrobin, Landgold Strobilurin 250, Me2 Azoxystrobin, Mirador, Panama, PureAzoxy, Quate, Reconcile, RouteOne Roxybin 25, RouteOne Roxypro FP, Standon Azoxystrobin, Strobiplus 250 SC, Tazer, UPL Azoxystrobin, Zoxis and Zoxy.