Introduction: Glyphosate is a non-selective common and effective herbicide. It is highly soluble in water, non-volatile and does not normally leach to groundwater. It is not persistent in soils but may be in aquatic systems under certain conditions. It is moderately toxic to humans and a skin and eye irritant. It is moderately toxic to birds, most aquatic organisms, earthworms and honeybees.
Common name: Glyphosate
Chemical Name: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine
Empirical formula: C3H8NO5P
Mol. Weight: 169.1
CAS No.: 1071-83-6
Leading Glyphosate supplier
95% Glyphosate TC,
41% Glyphosate SL,
62% Glyphosate IPA,
41% Glyphosate IPA
75.7% Glyphosate WDG
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Glyphosate FAO standard
Emergency Overview: Health Hazard likely routes of exposure skin contact and inhalation.
Potential Health Hazards:
Eye contact : The product may cause pain, redness and tearing.
Skin contact :The product is only slightly toxic and only slightly irritating.
Ingestion : The product only slightly toxic. The gastrointenstinal discomfort with irritation in mouth, vomiting and diarrahea.
Inhalation : The product is slightly toxic by this route.
Product analysis by hplc with u.v. detection (AOAC Methods, 17th Ed., 983.10; CIPAC Handbook, 1985, 1C, 2132; ibid., 1998, H, 182) or by ion-exchange lc with u.v. detection (AOAC Methods, 17th Ed., 996.12). Residues determined by glc (Pestic. Anal. Man., 1979, II ), by gc with MSD ( also applicable to aminomethylphosphonic acid, AOAC Methods, 17th Ed., 2000.05) or by hplc with o-phthalaldehyde post-column reaction specific for primary amines (J. Agric. Food Chem., 34(6), 955-960 (1986)). In environmental water, by hplc determination by o-phthalaldehyde post-column reaction system (AOAC Methods, 17th Ed., 991.08, 10.6.18).
Reviews FAO/WHO 47, 49, 80, 82 (see part 2 of the Bibliography). Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats 5600, mice 11 300, goats 3530 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits >5000 mg/kg. Eye irritant; non-irritating to skin (rabbits). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >4.98 mg/l air. NOEL In 2 y feeding trials, no ill-effects were observed in rats receiving 410 mg/kg diet daily (average) and, in 1 y feeding trials, no ill-effects were observed in dogs receiving 500 mg/kg daily (highest dose treated). Lowest relevant NOAEL (2 y) for rats 31 mg/kg b.w. daily (EU). ADI (JMPR) 0.3 mg/kg b.w. [1986, 1997] (for sum of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA). Water GV Unnecessary to recommend a guideline value because not hazardous to health at concentrations normally found in drinking water. Other Not mutagenic, not carcinogenic, not teratogenic, not neurotoxic. No adverse effects on reproduction. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) U; EPA (formulation) III EC classification Xi; R41| N; R51, R53
Birds Acute oral LD50 for bobwhite quail >3851 mg/kg. Dietary LC50 (8 d) for quail and ducks >4640 mg/kg diet. Fish LC50 (96 h) for trout 86, bluegill sunfish 120, harlequin fish 168, sheepshead minnow >1000 mg/l. Daphnia LC50 (48 h) 780 mg/l. Algae EC50 (72 h) for Selenastrum capricornutum 485 mg/l, (7 d) 13.8 mg/l; (96 h) for Skeletonema costatum 1.2 mg/l, (7 d) 0.64 mg/l; (7 d) for Navicula pelliculosa 42, Anabaena flos-aquae 15 mg/l. Other aquatic spp. LC50 (96 h) for mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) >1000, grass shrimp 281, fiddler crab 934 mg/l. EC50 (96 h) for sea urchin >1000 mg/l; (14 d) for Lemna gibba 25.5 mg/l. EC50 (48 h) for Litoria moorei tadpole 111 mg/l. Bees LD50 (contact and oral ) >100 mg/bee.
EHC 159 (WHO, 1994). Animals In mammals, following oral administration, glyphosate is very rapidly excreted unchanged and does not bioaccumulate. Plants Slowly metabolised to aminomethylphosphonic acid ([1066-51-9]), which is the major plant metabolite. Soil/Environment In soil (field), DT50 1-130 d, depending on edaphic and climatic conditions. In water, DT50 varies from a few to 91 d. Photodegradation in water occurs under natural conditions, DT50 33-77 d; no substantial photodegradation in soil was recorded over 31 d. In a lab. whole system with water and sediment, DT50 27-146 d (aerobic), 14-22 d (anaerobic). The major metabolite in soil and water is aminomethylphosphonic acid.
Usage: Translocated herbicide that may be applied preplant or preemergence to over 150 crops for control of annual and perennial weeds, woody brush, and trees. Use postdirected in tree and plantation crops, postemergence over Roundup* Ready soybeans, and postharvest in fallow periods and noncropland. For annual and perennial grasses and broadleaf weeds in plantation and other crops, and general weed control in noncropland and as no-tillage in farmland.
Application: Biochemistry Inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme of the aromatic acid biosynthetic pathway. This prevents synthesis of essential aromatic amino acids needed for protein biosynthesis. Mode of action Non-selective systemic herbicide, absorbed by the foliage, with rapid translocation throughout the plant. Inactivated on contact with soil. Uses Control of annual and perennial grasses and broad-leaved weeds, pre-harvest, in cereals, peas, beans, oilseed rape, flax and mustard, at c. 1.5-2 kg/ha; control of annual and perennial grasses and broad-leaved weeds in stubble and post-planting/pre-emergence of many crops; as a directed spray in vines and olives, at up to 4.3 kg/ha; in orchards, pasture, forestry and industrial weed control, at up to 4.3 kg/ha. As an aquatic herbicide, at c. 2 kg/ha.